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äԵҧԴ

( Chicken Infectious Anemia, CIA )

س ԧ

ʶҺѹآҾѵ觪ҵ

äԵҧԴ (CIA) äԴҡ 觷١ ҡ ˧ մͧҡԴԵҧԴ aplastic anemia ʹ͡ ͧҧ½ (generalized lymphoid atrophy) ԴԤѹͧ µ͡õԴá͹ѡԴҡü˹ѧѡʺʹ ա¡äҧѹ ҡ÷辺 blue wing disease (Engstrom&Luthman,1984), hemorrhagic syndrome (Yuasa et al.,1987), anemia-dermatitis (Vielitz&Landgraf,1988)

ѵԤҢͧä

Yuasa et al. (1979) §ҹ¡ͨҡ·աõԴ reticuloendotheriosis virus 觻͹Ѥչ硫 ¡éմҧҹдɡͧҴ 25 nm ١跴ͧԴʹͨ (specific pathogen free, SPF) 1 ѹ ҷ١е Եҧҧ عç ʹ͡ҧ ʽ ֧¡͹ԴԵҧ chicken anemia agent (CAA) ͹դҹ٧ ԴüԴԢͧѡ§ҡФѾ ֧բͨӡѴǡѺ֡͹ §֡ҷҧҹҸԷ (Taniguchi et al., 1982,1983) Yuasa (1983) CAA öԭԺ lymphoblastoid cell lines ҡͧ͡ҧԴͧ LSCC-1104B1 (ҡͧ͡ҫԴҡä⤫) MDCC-MSB1 (ҡͧ͡Դҡä硫) 觹͡ҡз֡ǡѺ͹дǡ觢 ѧШҧǡѺѭҢͧԵҧ辺㹷ͧ (Yuasa et al.,1983a) ѧҡ֡ѡɳٻҧͧ͹еҨ֧¹ chicken anemia virus (Gelderblom et al.,1989)

ѧ§ҹ¡ͤáȭ §ҹ¡͹ҡȵҧ ѹ (Bulow et al.,1983) ѧ (Chettle et al.,1989) (Picault et al.,1992) ഹ (Engtrom,

1988) ѧ (Farkas et al.,1992) Ѱԡ (Rosenberger&Cloud,1989a, Goodwin et al.,1989; McNulty

et al.,1989) (Firth&Imai, 1990) ǫŹ (Stanislawek&Howell,1994) ҫ (Brentano

et al.,1991) ਹԹ (Buscaglia et al.,1994) (Toro et al.,1994) ѿԡ (Wicht&Maharaj,1993)

ش (Al-Ankari et al.,1996) (Seong et al.,1996) (Avram&Avram,1997) չ (Zhon et al.,1997) л (Ф,1996) ͡ҡ鹨ҡ§ҹ֡ҷҧԷҢͧ٧ 㹻 (Rozanah et al.,1995) Ź (Wieliczko et al.,1996) 駢ͧ٧ SPF (Yuasa et al.,1985; McNulty et al.,1988; Nicholas et al.,1989) 觪աкҴͧ͹价š

˵

ԴҡԵҧԴ (chicken anemia virus, CAV) 觢йѴ㹵С Circoviridae Ѻǡ circovirus Դ porcine circovirus, psittacine beak and feather disease virus pigeon circovirus (Lukert et al.,1995; Woods et al.,1994) 令ա¹ŧèѴ ͧҡդᵡҧͧҴѡɳзҧšŢͧ (Todd et al.,1991; Note born & Koch,1995)

CAV DNA ʪԴ ٻǧ ͡ Ҵ鹼ٹҧҳ 19-26 (Goryo et al.,1987; Gelderblom et al.,1989; McNulty et al.,1990a; Imai&Yuasa,1991) Сͺõչ 3 Դ VP1 (Ҵҳ 50 kDa) ǹСͺ˭ͧ capsid protein ǢͧѺáеաҧ͹Ժʹ VP2 (Ҵҳ 30 kDa) non-structural proteinѧҺ˹ҷѴǹǢͧѺáеաҧ͹ԺʹѺ VP1 VP3 (Ҵҳ 16 kDa) ¡ apoptin 繵ǡеԴ apoptosis (programmed cell death) thymocytes §·Դõ¢ͧͧҡ¢ͧþѹء աѡʺ ͡ҡѧǹǢͧѺӹǹͧʴ (Noteborn&Koch,1995)

CAV ùҧ¡辺դᵡҧҧ antigenicity ֧§ serotype ͡ҡ鹡֡ҷҧ restriction-enzyme mapping С§Ǣͧ (DNA sequence) ͧ CAV ùҧ羺դᵡҧҡѡ (Noteborn&Koch,1995)

ҹͧ

CAV ʷդҹ٧ ੾ж infected organic materials ֧繡ҡз CAV 觶١Ѻ͡ҡѺبл͹ç͹ ( Nicholas et al.1989; Yuasa ,1992)

CAV դҹ

- ether chloroform, ͹ س 80 0C ҹ 15 ҷ , 70 0C ҹ 1 зФ繡ô pH 3 ҹ 3 (Yuasa et al.,1979)

- Ҧͷ invert soap, amphoteric soap, orthodichlorobenzene organic solvent (Yuasa ,1992)

- 90% acetone ҹ 24 سͧ (Taylor,1992)

- 0.1 N HCl, 0.1 N NaOH, 0.1% sodium azide 1% thimerosol (Yuasa ,1992)

- formaldehyde ethylene oxide fumigation ҹ 24 (Yuasa ,1992)

CAV ١´

- ͹ 1000C ҹ 15 ҷ 㹼Եѳͧ core temperature 950C, 30 ҷ 1000C ҹ 10 ҷ (Urlings et al.,1993)

- 10% iodine 10% hypochlorite ҹ 2 370C (١¶§ 2%) (Yuasa,1992)

- 5% formaldehyde ҹ 24 سͧ (Yuasa,1992)

- 1% glutaraldehyde ҹ 10 ҷ سͧ (Yuasa,1992)

- 0.4% beta-propiolactone ҹ 24 40C (Yuasa,1992)

- 50% phenol ҹ 5 ҷ 370C (١´ 5% phenol ҹ 2 ) (Yuasa et al., 1979; Yuasa,1992)

СõԴ

CAV Ш·ǵǹ͹ (vertical & horizontal transmission) 㹷ͧ辺ä١Ѻǵ (vertical transmission) ҹҧԴ (laying) ͡ҡ鹤ѾҨѺͼҹҧͧ͢;ѹԴ (Hoop,1993) ǹ͹ (horizontal transmis- sion) Դ駷ҧçзҧ ǹ˭¡áԹ Ҩ¡ (Rosenberger& Cloud,1989b) õԴǹ͹١誹Դ SPF ʴҡûҨѺ͵ 1 ѹ ҡ§Ѻ١ѺԸթմҡ (Yuasa et al.,1979)

ءդǵ͡õԴ CAV ҡâͧäԴ੾١ع¡ 2 ѻ (Yuasa et al.,1979; Yuasa&Imai,1986; McNulty et al.,1989; Rosenberger&Cloud,1989b) դҹä CIA 鹵 դǢͧѺҧ͹Ժʹ (Yuasa et al.,1980; Yuasa et al., 1988; Hu et al.,1993 ) thymic precusors cells (Jeurissen et al.,1992)

õԴҡ 12 ѻ Ԥ ͡ҡʴҡû ѧռšзѵҡԭԺ ФسҾͧżԵ (Bisgaard,1983; Engstrom&Luthman,1984; Vielitz& Landgraf, 1988; Hoop,1992)) CAV ж١Ѻ͡ҷҧبѧõԴ 2 ѻǹҡҨبкҧѧҡԴ 3-5 ѻ 辺بաѧҡաҧ͹Ժʹ (Hoop,1992; Yuasa et al.,1983b)

跴ͧԴ ТѺ CAV ҹҧѡѧҡѺ 8-14 ѹ (Yuasa& Yoshida, 1983) ҡ§ҹõԴ͵ҵ㹷ͧ辺ҡ CAV ҹҧѡҨԴ㹪ǧ 3-9 ѻ ѧҡѺ ǹ˭Դҧ 1-3 ѻ ѺѵҡШ¢ͧ ҳͷѺ Ф㹡ҧԤͧ (Blow&Schat,1997) ١ѺͼҹҡҧѡաԭԺⵢͧѾпѡ ʴҡûػҳ 1-2 ѻ Ԥ CAV еԴͫТѺ͡ҧب 2-4 ѹѧҡѺҹ 辺աâѺͼҹҧѡ ѧ Ф´ ռŵ͡âѺ (Hoop, 1992)

ҡ

ҡâͧä CIA о੾١Դͼҹҧ (vertical transmission) ١ԤѺ¡éմáԴ 8-14 ѹ ҡ ˧« ˹ѡŴ մ ѧࡵҡ˹ѧdzբ ˹ѧ ˧͹ Т ѵҵ»ҳ 10-20 % աõ 12-23 ѹ е٧ش 14-18 ѹ (Taniguchi et al.,1982) 㹡óշաõԴá͹ѵҵҨ٧֧ 60 % ١·¨繻 20-28 ѹѧҡԴ (Blow& Schat,1995)

عçͧԵҧѡɳ蹪ѴͧõԴ CAV ١Ѻ ù лҳͧͷѺ ʹ ¾ѹͧ١ (Yuasa, 1989) ʹ١ о ʹҧ 秵Ǫ hematocrit ( 6-27 %)

ҸҾ

عçͧҸҾ鹡ѺѨµҧ ùͧ (Yuasa&Imai, 1986; Toro et al.,1997) ҳͧ CAV ԸշѺ (McNulty et al., 1990b; Rosenberger&Cloud, 1989b; Yuasa et al., 1979) Դ¾ѹͧ (Yuasa,1989) Ԥҡ (Yuasa et al., 1980; Otaki et al., 1992) (Yuasa et al., 1979 ; Yuasa et al., 1983a ; Jeurissen et al., 1992 ; Hu et al., 1993) лѨµҧкԤѹͧ (Rosenberger&Cloud, 1989b ; Yuasa et al., 1988)

ѧҡ١ SPF 1 ѹ Ѻ CAV ¡éմҡ CAV Եӹǹеҧҧ Ѻ 䢡д١ ͧ ö¡ 1 ѹ ¾ҳ٧ش (high titer) еҧѧҡѺ 7-14 ѹ 㹫ѧҡѺ 7 ѹ ͵Ǩ͹Ժʹѹ 14 ѧҡѺ Ǩ辺 CAV 㹫ա (Yuasa et al., 1983b) SPF

Ѻ CAV ¡éմҡ 28 42 ѹ öǨ¡ CAV ҡеҧǡѹ ¡鹨ҡ ͧЫ ¾ջҳ٧ش (high titer) ѧҡѺ 7 ѹ ŴŧҧǴѧҡѺ 14 ѹ öǨ͹Ժʹ 7 ѹ (Yuasa et al.,1983b)

CAV ռ㹡÷кԤµç ͧҡաӹǹͧҧ (generalized lymphoid cells) (Smyth et al.,1993) ੾ precursor T-cells ǹ cortex ͧ (Adair et al.,1993) зԴõ¢ͧ ¢ǹ apoptosis programmed cell death*

Դýͧ͢ʫ觾Ѵਹ ѧҡѺͻҳ 2 ѻ ǹԵҧ

ѡɳз蹪Ѵͧä CIA 鹡礧Դҡõ¢ͧ hemocytoblast 䢡д١ ¡кǹ

ѹ ѡɳТͧ nuclear chromatin Goryo Ф (1989) phagocytosed erythrocyte 䢡д١跴ͧѧҡѺ CAV 6 ѹ (Jeurissen et al.,1992)

programmed cell death* ѡɳо鹰ҹͧԭԺⵢͧͻз繵͹ ᷹ͧͺҧԴ 蹵 㹤ѵ ԴäǺ ͧҧѹء ͡ҡѧ繢ǹ˹觢ͧкԤ㹡áӨѴաõԴ (Goldstein et al.,1991) ö¡ҡաкǹõµҸҾ (necrosis) Ըշҧŷȹ礵͹ ѡɳССͧ nuclear chromatin Ѻ nuclear membrane 繵 (Noteborn&Koch, 1995)

êѹٵä

êѹٵäǴ ЪäǺлͧѹäբ ٭·ҧɰԨŴŧ (McIlroy et al.,1992)

1. äԴҡ÷¤֧ѹ

- äѡʺԴ (Infectious bursal disease, IBD)

- ä硫 (Mareks disease, MD)

- õԴ Osteopetrosis virus

- õԴ Erythroblastosis virus

- õԴ adenovirus ԴԴ Inclusion body hepatitis

- ä⵫⹫ (Leucocytozoonosis)

- äѵա (Avian malaria)

- âҴԵԹ

- 繾ɨҡ sulfur, mycotoxin trichloroethylene

2. ëѡѵ

- ѡһѭ Դҡѹ㹪ǧ 27-36 ѻ ੾з§㹿ç͹ (Sander et al.,1997) 㹡óշ§١觿ѡҡѹ½٧ѹ оä١ҡѹաõԴ CAV ҹ ١蹷§ѹʴҡû (Bisguard,1983; Engstrom& Luthman,1984; Yuasa et al.,1987; Vielitz&Landgraf,1988; Chettle et al.,1989)

- ѵҡõ١ػҳ 10-14 ѹ٧ (Ҩ֧ 10 Ңͧѵҵ·辺) 㹷ͧѡä١ص 3-15 ѻ о· 5-9 ѻ (Yuasa,1989) ͧҡջѭǡѺкԤͧҨԴҡõԴ IBD, MD, þ ´ ͡ҡѡʹ͡ ѺԵҧ Ҩ˹ѧѡʺẺ͵ (gangrenous dermatitis )

-ٻѵԡõǨͧ٧ѹ CAV ¨о㹪ǧ͹Դѭ ѹ͹Ժʹյ CAV ѧҡä١ еǨ͹Ժʹյ CAV 㹫ѹ

3. ҡ

١ 1-2 ѻ Եҧ ǹ˭еѴԹҡ hematocrit ӡ 25% (Rosenberger& Cloud,1989a) 27% (Yuasa et al.,1979) ҧá hematocrit ѧ§ҧöػԴҡõԴ CAV ͧҡѧջѨͧӹ֧֧ ¾ѹ СèѴÿ (Goodwin&Brown,1992; Goodwin et al.,1992b) 駡õԴͪԴ þɵҧ (Taniguchi et al.,1982) Goodwin et al., (1992a) §ҹ hematocrit 觪Եҧ 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 49 ѹ ҡѺ͹¡ 26%, 29%, 33%, 32%, 33%, 33%, 31% 28% ӴѺ ͡ҡ鹡õѴԹԵҧҡ hematocrit ѧǨеͧӹ֧֧ Դ آͧ١ ʹѴǹͧԵҧ辺㹽٧ 㹽٧١軡ѡԵҧ 2.5%ͧ١駽٧ ǹ٧ջѭҨԵҧҡ 2.5%ͧ١駽٧

4. õǨҧҸԷШžҸԷ

ä辺ҧѴਹ ʽҧعç 䢡д١ͧմ شʹ͡͡ ͢ С Ҩشʹ͡͡úӷ˹ѧdz ⤹աТ ú Ыմͧ Ѻ ҽ ͡شͧк кҧҨٻҧ͹ҧ ҧžҸԷҾ hematipoietic cells 䢡д١Ŵŧ adipose tissue ᷹ lymphocytes 䢡д١ cecal tonsils ҨúͧѺ (Tanigushi et al.,1982)

5. õǨҧͧԺѵԡ

ҧ㹡õǨ : ʹ ب Ѻ 䢡д١

ԸաõǨ

¡

1. § MDCC-MSB1 µͧ§ҹء 2-3 ѹ 繨ӹǹ 5-10 passages еǨ ¹ŧͧ (cytopathic effect) ԴͨբҴ˭е ѧࡵ ҡҷ§¹ᴧ

2. ѡԴ SPF ¡éմᴧ (yolk sac inoculation)ͧѾ 6 ѹǨҡԡâͧ١ѧҡѡػҳ 10-15 ѹ

3. ١ SPF 1 ѹ ¡éմҡҪͧͧ ǵǨҡ ԡâͧ١

·ѡԸա¡ͧҡԸաõǨҡ ҹҹ

õǨ͹ਹ

1. indirect immunofluorescent antibody test ( IFA )

2. polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) assay

3. DNA probe

õǨҧԷ

1. serum neutralization ( SN )

2. indirect immunofluorescent antibody technique ( IFA )

3. indirect immunoperoxidase assay ( IIP )

4. enzyme--linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA )

šзҧɰԨҡõԴ CAV

õԴ CAV ǵ駼ҹҧ (vertical transmission) 觷١ѡ繻ʴҡû 10-14 ѹ Դ٭ҧѴਹҡ ѵҵ¢ͧ١ ѵҡԭԺŴŧ 㹡һԪǹͻͧѹẤá͹ McIlroy et al. (1992) §ҹҡԴä CIA 15 ٧ ١Դͼҹҧѹ 29 % ռѺӡһ 17.3-19.6% 1000 ˹ѡӡҽ٧ 3.3-3.5% ѵҡõ٧ҽ٧ 2.0-2.3% ռŵѵҡš¹ (feed-conversion ratio) ·աкҴعç˹ѡҨŴŧ֧ 7-12% (Chettle et al.,1989)

ǹõԴ CAV ǹ͹ (horizontal transmission) 駷ҧçзҧ 繪Դʴҡù ѧբ͢Ѵ駡ѹҨзԴ٭µɰԨ§ McNulty et al.(1991) ֡ҼšзҡõԴ CAV Դʴҡþҽ٧ͷ͹Ժʹյ CAV չ˹ѡӡҽ٧͹Ժʹյ CAV ռŴŧ 13% 1000 觢Ѵ駡Ѻ Goodwin et al. (1993) §ҹդᵡҧͧ ˹ѡ ѵҡõѵҡš¹ ҧ٧ͷ駷͹Ժʹյ CAV з Jorgensen et al. (1995) §ҹҡõԴ CAV, IBDV, adenovirus reovirus Դʴҡ ռšзɰԨ§ ҧáõԴ CAV Դʴҡù鹨ռšз еͧӹ֧֧Ѩ ùлҳͧͷѺ ¾ѹ Ҿç͹ СèѴÿ

äǺлͧѹ

1. ;ѵҡõ¢ͧ١ػҳ 1 ѻ٧һ Եҧ ͧպǨ׹ѹ˵ ҾԴҡ CAV һԪǹ㹽٧Ŵ¨ҡõԴẤá͹ ͡ҡ鹵ͧԴҽ٧ѹ㴷աõԴ һԪǹ¼١ѡҡ٧ѧǵ 1 ѹ ЪŴ٭ŧҡ (McIlroy et al.,1992)

2. ջѵԡõǨҧԷҺԤͧ٧ѹ Ф͹Ժʹյ CAV ੾С͹

3. èѴÿСآԺŷ Ъ»ͧѹ٧ԴԤѹͧͧҡ ´СõԴ͵ҧ

Ѥչͧѹä CIA

ѧҡԴкҴͧäá աԸյҧ㹡ûͧѹä ٧ѹѺաҧ͹Ժʹա͹֧ 蹡üʴͧ鹨ҡ٧Դ (infected litter) Ѻʴͧ鹢ͧ٧ѹ蹷᷹ С٧ѹԹѺ(crude liver homogenates) ҡ١ ¼㹹 (Verlitz&Landgraft,1988) ҨŴ繡§͡Ѻ蹷֧ʧ (Blow&Schat,1997)

ѨغѹѤչԵ͡è˹§ 2 ԴѤչ繨ҡѹ¡üӡԹ (Vielitz et al.,1989; Vielitz&VoB,1994) ШҡŹ¡éմ (Steenhuisen et al.,1994) ѤչѧǵͧзҧѴѧͧҡѤչ繷ѧդعç 觨ռԴкԤͧ١ 3 ѻ·ʴҡû (McConnell et al., 1993 a,b) йѧѤչ͵ͧҡöԵջҳ٧ҡ ǹѤչԴ recombinant, vector subunit ҨѤչ͹Ҥ йѧҧ֡ҷͧͧԺѵԡ (Noteborn&Koch,1995)

СóǡѺԵҧ㹻

.. 2534

ҡԪҡͧä IBD, Reovirus CAA ç ͹áҤ Rosenberger ѧࡵҡõǨ٧ҧ 2-5 ѻ ࢵҤҧͧ·ʧäѡʺԴ() ҹҨաõԴ CAV ͡ҡ·ʧ´ѧǨҡ 11 ҵǨҤ hematocrit зӡüҫҡ褳ѵᾷʵ ŧóԷ Ҥhematocrit ҡ 䢡д١մ еʽ (§ѡ, 2536) ҧáաõǨ׹ѹҧҹԷԷ

.. 2537

ҹ ʶҺѹآҾѵ觪ҵ ѵ ֡Ըա¡ CAV MDCC-MSB1 Ը microtest method (Imai & Yuasa,1990)ҡҧ Ѻ ʹᴧب ͧ١軡Ԩӹǹ 3-6 3, 4, 5 6 ѻ ҡ 2 㹨ѧѴйظ ž Ǩ辺

㹢ǡѹ֡ҡõǨ͹Ժʹյ CAV Ը IFA (Yuasa et al.,1985) 纵ҧҡ١ءǷ㹡÷ͧ¡ Шҡѹͧ١н٧ 20 ҧ šõǨ١͹Ժʹյ CAV ѹͧ١п ͹Ժʹյ CAV Դ 80 % 40% ʴҾѹѧաõԴ CAV ж·ʹԤѧ١ ( maternally derived antibody) :١ػҳ 3 ѻ ͡ҡͧҡͷ 2 ç͹кԴ (evaporation) աèѴÿ ١աõԴ CAV ֧Ǩ辺

.. 2538

ҹ ʶҺѹآҾѵ Ѻҧص 1- 7 ѻ ʧաõԴ CAV ҡ մ hematocrit ҫҡʽ ըشʹ͡͡Т ҡõǨ¡о٨ CAV ͹仩մѡ SPF ١ѧҡѡ 5-10 ѹԵҧ hematocrit е¾ҵʽǡѹ (Ф 2539)

õǨ͹Ժʹյ CAV Ը IFA ELISA (commercial kit) ҡѹ 6 20-54 ҧ ࢵѧѴ ҹ Ҩչ ž йҪҾ͹Ժʹյ CAV 5 Ѵǹҧѹ 40% - 95%

..2539-2540

õǨ͹Ժʹյ CAV Ը ELISA (commercial kit) ҡѹ 11 31-480 ҧ ࢵѧѴ ź к йҪ ͹Ժʹյ CAV ءѴǹҧѹ 50% - 100%

..2540

㹪ǧ»բзҹ ʶҺѹآҾѵ ֡Ը polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ;Ѳҡêѹٵäѵա Ѻҧ·ʧҵԴ CAV ҡ 2 ص 13-47 ѹ 21-28 ѹ աѡʺͧ˹ѧẺ͵ ֧ͧԸ PCR 㹡õǨҧѧо CAV 㹵Ѻ¨ӹǹ 4 ҡ 5 ҧӡõǨ ҧáѧԸչ㹡ԡêѹٵä·

..2541

աùѤչ CAV ҡҧ բͺѺҧԤѺѹԤ CAV 12 ѻ

ҡšõǨ͹Ժʹյ CAV 㹽٧ѹ оͧ .. 2537-2540 觪աШ¢ͧ CAV ੾ࢵ§˹ ѧ͡ʷԴä١ҡõԴͼҹҧѹѧǨ֧ҨŴŧ ǡѹ١Ѻ͹Ժʹռҹҡ ʹ¨ҡ¢ͧкԤͧҡõԴ CAV 㹪ǧѻáͧ ѧͻͧѹԴ¨ҡõԴ CAV е仨֧աèѴҽ٧ѹ (੾н٧н٧§ç͹ 㹿 ) ͹Ժʹյ CAV ͡ҡ鹤աèѴÿ ʹ͡骹ԴѤչ ١ԴԤѹͧ ԴѭҫѺ͹Դ٭ ੾зȢͧҡѧʺѭɰԨ㹢й


͡ҧԧ


͡ûСͺúͧäԹ࿤й 㹡ûЪԪҡͧʶҹҾäСèѴ

Ѵ ѵᾷʵ ŧóԷ ͧЪҤʶҺѹ 3 ѹ 22-24 ¹ 2541